Applied Physics for Radiation Oncology, Revised Edition, eBook

Applied Physics for Radiation Oncology, Revised Edition, eBook

Author:  Robert Stanton and Donna Stinson
ISBN:  9781930524620
Published:  2009 | 292 pp | eBook

Price:   $ 105.00


Table of Contents

Applied Physics for Radiation Oncology

  1. Matter and Energy

  2. Radiation and Its Properties
    The Structure of an Atom
    Subatomic Particles
    Ionizing Radiation
    Linear Energy Transfer
    Electromagnetic Radiation
    Wave-Particle Duality
    Wavelength and Frequency

  3. The Production of X-Rays
    The Discovery of X-Rays
    Collision Interactions
    Characteristic Radiation
    Radiative Interactions (Bremsstrahlung)
    Filters Used in Conventional X-Ray Therapy
    Beam Direction as a Function of Incoming Electron Energy
    Beam Direction Dependency on X-Ray Target Design

  4. Radiation Quality
    X-Ray Intensity
    Beam Divergence
    Beam Attenuation
    Attenuation Coefficients
    5. X-Ray and ?-Ray Interactions with Matter
    Attenuation Coefficients
    Coherent Scatter
    Photoelectric Effect
    Compton Effect
    Pair Production
    Pair Annihilation
    Photonuclear Interaction
    Energy Absorption

  5. Principles of Radiation Detectors
    Measurement of Radiation
    Gas Ionization Detectors
    How to Use a Survey Meter
    Scintillation Detectors
    Neutron Dosimeters
    Thermoluminescent Dosimeters
    Diode Detectors
    MOSFET Detectors

  6. Determining Radiation Intensity
    The Importance of Standardized Radiation Measurement
    The Roentgen as a Unit of Exposure
    “Conventional” X-Ray Machine Calibrations
    Radiation Absorbed Dose
    The fmedium Factor
    Cavity Theory
    Dose Equivalent

  7. Why Use Higher Energy Beams?
    Disadvantages of Low-Energy Machines
    Penumbra Size
    Inability to Use Isocentric Techniques
    Advantages of Megavoltage over Orthovoltage Beams
    Skin Sparing
    Electron Equilibrium
    Disadvantages of Megavoltage

  8. Linear Accelerators
    Accelerator Guides
    Power Sources
    Bending Magnets
    The Raw Electron Beam
    X-Ray Beam Production
    X-Ray Beam Flattening Filters
    Photon Beam Collimation
    Electron Beam Production
    Electron Scattering Foils
    Electron Beam Collimation
    Monitor Chambers for Photon and Electron Beams
    Helical Technology
    The Linear Accelerator Console: The Operator Interface
    Quality Assurance

  9. Other High-Energy Machines
    Cobalt-60 Machines (Radionuclide Teletherapy)
    Timer Error
    Quality Assurance of Cobalt-60 Machines
    Heavy Particle Therapy

  10. The Geometry of Photon Beams
    Similar Triangles
    Abutting Fields
    Non-Midplane Structures
    Simple Beam Arrangements
    Conventional Beam Blocking
    Multileaf Collimation

  11. Photon Beam Dosimetry
    Dose and Distance Terms
    Dose Fractionation
    Quantities Used in Treatment Calculations
    Backscatter Factor
    Output Factor
    Equivalent Square Fields
    Equipment Attenuation Factors
    Patient Attenuation Factors
    Depth Dose
    Tissue-Air Ratio (TAR)
    Tissue-Maximum Ratio (TMR)
    Isodose Curves
    Dose Profiles
    Moving Field Calculations

  12. Electron Beam Dosimetry
    Electron Beam Interactions
    Electron Beam Characteristics
    Electron Beam Profiles
    Gaps and Abutting Fields
    Electron Dose Measurements
    Treatment Calculations
    Irregularly Shaped Fields
    Tissue Inhomogeneities
    Inverse Square Law

  13. Treatment Planning
    Tumor Targeting Vocabulary
    Aims of Treatment Planning
    What Treatment Planning Includes
    Patient Alignment Devices
    Patient Positioning Aids
    Body Contours
    Isodose Distributions
    Oblique Incidence Corrections to Isodose Distributions
    Isodose Summations
    Treatment Techniques
    Stationary or Fixed Beam Treatment
    Moving Fields Treatment
    Tissue Inhomogeneities
    Tissue Compensation
    Wedge Filters
    Standard Treatment Calculation
    Beam On Time Calculations (Timer Settings)
    Monitor Unit Calculations

  14. Clinical Applications in Treatment Planning
    More Field Nomenclature
    Mixed Beams
    Field Weighting
    Non-Coplanar Beams
    Three-Dimensional Treatment Planning
    Conformal Methods
    Gated Radiation Therapy

  15. Brachytherapy
    Radium Substitutes
    Radioactive Sources
    Single Plane, Double Plane, and Volume Implants
    Permanent Implants
    Implant Dosimetry
    Remote High-Intensity Afterloading
    Specific Implant Techniques
    Radiation Safety with Implants

  16. Radiation Safety
    Recommendations and Regulations
    Measurement of Occupational Radiation Dose
    Radiation Risk
    Maximum Permissible Dose Equivalents
    Personnel Monitoring
    Time, Distance, and Shielding
    Radioactive Materials
    Radiation-Producing Machines
Periodic Table